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    ʡ . ʡ .
    (Local Area Networks- LAN) 1964 ȡ ѡ (Wan) Wide Area Networks 1966 ϡ Internet ѡ ɡ . ϡ .

    (Peripherals) ǡ (Resources) Printer)) (Modem) CD
    ( ROM Drive) . . :
    .
    Network Interface Card NIC-),) .
    Transmission Media)) Cables)) Wires)) (Waves Radio) Fiber Optic)).
    Bandwidth) ) (Packets Formats ) .
    Network Operating System- NOS)) ( Rights And Permissions ) Windows98 Windows 2000 Novell Netware.)

    ߡ . ( Computer Resources ʡ ̡ Peripheral ) .
    ʡ ʡ ѡ ϡ ѡ ɡ . ѡ . :
    Centralized Computing
    Distributed Computing

    ϡ ɡ . . Mainframe Dumb Terminals ɡ .

    Mainframe Terminals ɡ .

    ѡ Distributed Computing Distributed Processing. . . Protocol ( ). ǡ :
    , .
    Ü Adapter Network Interface Card
    Servers ʡ Clients . .
    (Nos-Network Operating System) Windows NT Windows 2000. .
    ֡ ɡ LAN Local Area Network)) ɡ LAN ȡ ,
    Local Area Network (LAN)
    , . Ethernet ɡ ɡ . ɡ . Coaxial Twisted Pair ... .
    . . ѡ Scanner Plotter. . ....... . ʅ .
    . . . ɡ . ɡ . ʡ ǡ ѡ .
    , ǡ ǡ . . . Windows 98 Ethernet .. . . Central . :
    : . .
    : .
    : ߡ .
    : ǡ .
    ..... . File Server Server . Client . . . LAN ڡ :
    Twisted Pair Cable Shielded Or Unshielded .
    Coaxial Cable (Coax) .

    Fiber Optic Cable .
    Wireless Transmission Media
    ɡ Metropolitan Area Networks MAN ʡ LAN 20 100 .
    LAN ɡ Wide Area Networks (Wan) ڡ . Wan :
    Enterprise Network
    Global Network
    . ʡ :

    Scheduling
    Groupware
    Attachments . :
    CCITT X.400
    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
    Message Handling Service MHS) (
    ǡ .
    ʡ .
    / Client / Server Networks
    ɡ . / - Server Based Network - Peer to Peer / ѡ / ɡ .

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    15 - 10 - 2003
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    /
    .
    .
    .
    .
    ɡ .
    Security / ϡ ( ) Administrator
    :
    File Servers
    Print Servers
    Application Servers
    Communication Servers
    Database Servers
    Windows NT Windows 2000 :
    Mail Server .
    Fax Server .
    Communication Server Directory Services Server Domain ( Windows) ɡ .
    / Internet\Intranet
    File And Print Server .
    Application Servers ߡ .
    ɡ ǡ ϡ . Microsoft LAN Manager ɡ Ms-Dos, Unix,Os/2 . Windows NT Server :
    (Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP Processor .
    Intel,Mips Risc Digital Alpha Axp PowerPC.
    Directory Services Architecture
    16 Exabyte ( 16 ).
    16 Exabyte
    .
    NT Workstation Windows Win9x . . / Network Combination . :
    .
    .
    .
    Processing Activity .
    ɡ :
    10 .
    .
    .
    . / . ѡ ѡ - - ϡ .
    Peer to Peer
    Peer to Peer . Workgroup Ethernet . . . . . .
    ɡ 10Base-2 Thin Ethernet 50 ohm co-axial . T.
    Thin Ethernet . Co-Axial . ɡ 185 30 .
    Mainframe ( ) . . . . File Server Applications Data Base . " " Contention . "" Protocol Medium Access Control (MAC) Ethernet. ɡ . . . . ( ) . ɡ . .
    ɡ . :
    10 .
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    .
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    .
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    .
    .
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    :
    :
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    -Windows for Workgroup 3.11
    -Windows 95
    Windows 98
    Windows Me
    Windows NT 4.0 Workstation
    Windows NT 4.0 Server
    Windows 2000 Professional
    Windows 2000 Server
    NT Windows 2000 . . NT 4.0 Windows :
    .
    .
    (Remote Access Service (RAS .
    Win9x

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